For centuries, Çeşme has been home to the Lydian and Persian empires, the Pergamon Kingdom, and the Roman and Byzantine empires.
Recent archaeological studies have revealed signs of settlement in Çeşme dating back to the Neolithic Age. Dating back to 1,000 BC, the town takes its name from the fountains from which sailors used to get water. The Ottomans visited the town every year and used it as a campaign route. Due to its coastline, the town has also served as a trade route throughout history.